colonialism

colonialism
The establishment by more developed countries of formal political authority over areas of Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America. It is distinct from spheres of influence, indirect forms of control, semi-colonialism , and neo-colonialism .
Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the nineteenth century. It was usually (but not necessarily) accompanied by the settling of White populations in these territories, the exploitation of local economic resources for metropolitan use, and sometimes both together. The term is often used as a synonym for imperialism although the latter covers other informal mechanisms of control.
In addition to debates about the causes, benefits, and impact of imperialism, discussion of colonialism has covered a wide range of issues including: the different mechanisms of colonial control and the contrast between the assimilationist policies of France and Portugal and the more segregated policies of Britain; the social and economic impact on colonized countries, resulting from the destruction of old social, economic, and political systems and the development of new ones; the nineteenth-century discourse of domination around the idea of the ‘civilizing mission’ and the related rise of racism; the issue of why colonialism ended in the post-1945 period, involving a consideration of the relative weights of international pressure from both the United States and USSR, the rise of nationalist movements demanding independence in colonies, and the exhaustion of the European colonial powers after the Second World War.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • colonialism — COLONIALÍSM s.n. Politică a unor state de cucerire de colonii1 (2) sau de menţinere a coloniilor. [pr.: ni a ] – Din fr. colonialisme. Trimis de hai, 29.06.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  colonialísm s. n. (sil. ni a ) Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa:… …   Dicționar Român

  • colonialism — co‧lo‧ni‧al‧is‧m [kəˈləʊniəlɪzm ǁ ˈloʊ ] noun [uncountable] ECONOMICS when a powerful country rules a weaker one and establishes its own trade and culture there: • the new Third World states liberated from colonialism * * * colonialism UK US… …   Financial and business terms

  • Colonialism — Co*lo ni*al*ism, n. 1. The state or quality of, or the relationship involved in, being colonial. The last tie of colonialism which bound us to the mother country is broken. Brander Matthews. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 2. A custom, idea, feature of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • colonialism — 1853, ways or speech of colonial persons, from COLONIAL (Cf. colonial) + ISM (Cf. ism). Meaning the system of colonial rule is from 1886 …   Etymology dictionary

  • colonialism — ► NOUN ▪ the practice of acquiring control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. DERIVATIVES colonialist noun & adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • colonialism — [kə lōn′nē əliz΄əm] n. the system or policy by which a country maintains foreign colonies, esp. in order to exploit them economically colonialist n., adj …   English World dictionary

  • Colonialism — This article is about territorial expansion. For the architectural style, see American colonial architecture. See colony and colonization for examples of colonialism that do not refer to Western colonialism. Also see Colonization (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia

  • colonialism — [[t]kəlo͟ʊniəlɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Colonialism is the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth. ...the bitter oppression of slavery and colonialism …   English dictionary

  • colonialism — colonialist, n., adj. colonialistic, adj. /keuh loh nee euh liz euhm/, n. 1. the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people. 2. the system or policy by which a nation maintains or advocates such… …   Universalium

  • colonialism — co|lo|ni|al|is|m [kəˈləuniəlızəm US ˈlou ] n [U] when a powerful country rules a weaker one, and establishes its own trade and society there →↑colony, imperialism ↑imperialism ▪ a legacy of European colonialism …   Dictionary of contemporary English

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